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1775 – George Washington takes command of Continental Army at Cambridge, Massachusetts.

1891 – 1st savings bank in US (Bank of Savings in NYC) opens its doors.

1839 – 1st state normal school in US opens, Lexington, Massachusetts, with 3 students.

1861 – Pony Express arrives in San Francisco with overland letters from NY.

1884 – Dow Jones publishes its 1st stock index, the Dow Jones Transportation Average.

1898 – US Navy defeats Spanish fleet in Santiago Harbor, Cuba.

1898 – American troops, en routs to the Philippines on the SS China, raise the American flag on Wake Island.

1930 – US Veterans Administration created.

1938 – President Franklin Roosevelt dedicates the Eternal Light Peace Memorial and lights the eternal flame at Gettysburg Battlefield.

1947 – 252,288 people (record) pass through Grand Central Station, NYC.

1948 – Kidnapper Caryl Chessman sentenced to death, California: execution doesn’t happen until 1960.

1968 – 41 degrees F, lowest temperature ever recorded in Cleveland in July.

1978 – US Supreme Court rules 5-4, FCC had a right to reprimand NY radio station WBAI for broadcasting George Carlin’s “Filthy Words”

1984 – Supreme Court rules Jaycees may be forced to admit women as members.

1986 – US President Reagan presides over relighting of renovated Statue of Liberty.

1989 – US Supreme Court rules states do not have to provide funds for abortions.

1994 – The deadliest day in Texas traffic history, according to the Texas Department of Pubic Safety. Forty six people killed in crashes.

1997 – Mississippi becomes 1st state to settle tobacco suit.

2001 – At a meeting of its oil members, OPEC agrees to maintain current production quotas; ministers indicate that, if Iraqi oil returns to the market, they may cut production in response to maintain their desired level of prices.

2018 – US Justice and Education Departments rescind Obama affirmative action policies in college admissions.