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1868 – US Secretary of State William H. Seward announces 14th Amendment ratified by states, grants citizenship to ex-slaves.

1900 – Hamburger created by Louis Lassing in Connecticut.

1915 – Because of virtual anarchy, US Marines go ashore in Haiti on orders from President Woodrow Wilson; this will lead to an occupation that will last until 1934.

1932 – US President Herbert Hoover uses federal troops to evict the Bonus Army (WWI veterans and their families) from their encampment, 4 die.

1933 – 1st singing telegram delivered (to Rudy Vallee), NYC.

1943 – US President FDR announces end of coffee rationing in US.

1945 – “Elevator girl” Betty Lou Oliver survives falling 75 stories after fog causes a US bomber plant to crash into the Empire State Building, breaking cables supporting the elevator she was operating. This remains the world record for the longest survived elevator fall.

1945 – US Senate ratifies United Nations charter 89-2.

1960 – Republican National convention selects Richard Nixon as candidate.

1965 – LBJ sends 50,000 more soldiers to Vietnam (total of 125,000)

1971 – 16 time gold glover Brook Robinson commits 3 errors in 6th inning.

1977 – 1st oil through the TransAlaska Pipeline System reach Valdez, Alaska.

1978 – Price of gold tops $200-an-ounce level for 1st time.

1986 – NASA releases transcript from doomed Challenger, pilot Michael Smith could be heard saying, “Uh-oh!” as spacecraft disintegrated.

1988 – IBM announces price hike on older models.

1989 – Cards’ Vince Coleman is caught stealing, ends record streak at 50.

1995 – Art Modell’s rep begins secret talks to move team to Baltimore.

2014 – UN Security Council hold emergency meeting calling for an immediate and indefinite humanitarian ceasefire between Israel and Hamas.

2014 – Israel criticizes John Kerry’s proposed ceasefire, stating that no ceasefire deal will be accepted without the destruction of tunnels leading from Gaza to Israel and the demilitarization of the Gaza Strip.

2017 – US Senate vote for “skinny” repeal of Obamacare fails 51-49 when John McCain casts deciding vote against.

2017 – General John Kelly appointed new Chief of Staff by US President Donald Trump.

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